Thursday, May 30, 2013

Origin of lunar MASCONS found in GRAIL data - JPL

The Moon's elusive, uneven gravity is clearly seen in this Free-Air Gravity map produced from data returned in 2012 by the twin GRAIL orbiters. Mare Imbrium, for example, at upper right presents a significant anomalous profile, concentrated near what may have been the original "transitory" crater boundary but equally reduced from the lunar average (blue) between that boundary and the outer reaches of Imbrium's present boundary [NASA/JPL/MIT].
Pasadena -- Investigators combing through the huge treasure trove of data returned to Earth by NASA's GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) twin spacecraft Ebb and Flow in 2012 claim to have "uncovered the origin of massive invisible regions that make the moon's gravity uneven, a phenomenon affecting the stability and longevity of lunar-orbiting spacecraft," JPL announced Thursday.

"GRAIL data confirm that lunar mascons were generated when large asteroids or comets impacted the ancient moon, when its interior was much hotter than it is now," said Jay Melosh, a GRAIL co-investigator at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind., and lead author of the new research. "We believe the data from GRAIL show how the moon's light crust and dense mantle combined with the shock of a large impact to create the distinctive pattern of density anomalies that we recognize as mascons."

The origin of lunar mascons has been a mystery in planetary science since their discovery in 1968 by a team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Researchers generally agree mascons resulted from ancient impacts billions of years ago. It was not clear until now how much of the unseen excess mass resulted from lava filling the crater or iron-rich mantle upwelling to the crust.

On a map of the moon's gravity field, a mascon appears in a target pattern. The bulls-eye has a gravity surplus. It is surrounded by a ring with a gravity deficit. A ring with a gravity surplus surrounds the bulls-eye and the inner ring. This pattern arises as a natural consequence of crater excavation, collapse and cooling following an impact. The increase in density and gravitational pull at a mascon's bulls-eye is caused by lunar material melted from the heat of a long-ago asteroid impact.

"Knowing about mascons means we finally are beginning to understand the geologic consequences of large impacts," Melosh said. "Our planet suffered similar impacts in its distant past, and understanding mascons may teach us more about the ancient Earth, perhaps about how plate tectonics got started and what created the first ore deposits."

"Mascons also have been identified in association with impact basins on Mars and Mercury," said GRAIL principal investigator Maria Zuber of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. "Understanding them on the moon tells us how the largest impacts modified early planetary crusts."

Launched as GRAIL A and GRAIL B in September 2011, the probes, renamed Ebb and Flow, operated in a nearly circular orbit near the poles of the moon at an altitude of about 34 miles (55 kilometers) until their mission ended in December 2012. The distance between the twin probes changed slightly as they flew over areas of greater and lesser gravity caused by visible features, such as mountains and craters, and by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface.


Anonymous said...

It would be interesting to superimpose the mascon image on LROC images. I'd like to know where in the maria the mascons are.

Joel Raupe said...

Great minds think alike, some claim. That same thought had occurred to me also, perhaps Imbrium, in particular, because the transitory crater boundary may be essentially invisible in optical photography. You've inspired me to work on it!


Stars said...

Research at Perdue University mapped Moon’s gravitational field using NASA Grail survey data. Researchers propose that asteroid or comet impact, in combination with volcanic activity, increased the density of lunar crust (mass-concentrations or “mascons”) in the impact basins of Imbrium, Serentalis, Crisium, and Orientale, centered in the hemisphere facing Earth. This gives tidally locked reasoning more substance.