Sunday, February 28, 2010

America needs a frontier

Long-Term Parking - Apollo 17 lunar rover before the beginning of the last EVA on the Moon, December 1972. Delays and politicization would delay the first Space Shuttle flight from 1976 until 1981.

We must not discard greatest innovator in history
U.S. will lose its hard-earned technology edge

Walt Cunningham
CM Pilot Apollo 7
Houston Chronicle

Except in wartime, there has never been another government program that produced as much technological innovation as the U.S. space program, and there likely never will be. No other program has so successfully infused the economy, rallied the nation, inspired youngsters toward academic achievement or established the U.S. as the world leader in technology.

In spite of this, on Feb. 1, President Barack Obama announced the cancellation of the Constellation program of exploration, leaving NASA, for the first time in history, without a specific mission. It is as if President Gerald Ford had canceled the space shuttle program in 1975, just as the last Apollo mission was being flown. The shuttle orbiter development was well under way at the time, but that did not save us from a six-year gap before the next American was launched into space.

Today there is no realistic successor for human spaceflight waiting in the wings.

The biggest consequence of that first gap was the best and brightest of the NASA engineers and scientists leaving to seek more challenging jobs. It took years to rebuild the professional team that would eventually launch 134 shuttle missions and construct the most amazing engineering project in history — the International Space Station.

The space shuttle program not only maintained our preeminence in space, it raised our technical expertise and further increased our prestige among the developed nations of the world — precisely the same reasons the Chinese are now working toward landing a man on the moon.

Congress is our last hope of putting a stop to the dismantling of a once great agency. Members of Congress are concerned about job losses and the economic impact, but in the long run they are not nearly as costly as the loss of an inspirational vision for the next generation of space scientists, engineers and explorers. You have only to look at Lewis and Clark, our westward expansion and Armstrong and Aldrin landing on the moon to know exploration is in our blood. We should be proud of it. Americans need a frontier.

While NASA and some others are trying to put the best positive spin on the budget proposal, the negative fallout is building. Personnel requirements for the agency's new direction will do little to mitigate the tremendous losses from this foolish cancellation without a replacement in hand. The real loss, as in the 1970s, will be those trained and experienced engineers who are already leaving for more inspiring pursuits.

Spokesmen are trying to rationalize the debilitating cuts in the agency's programs. They claim the “$6 billion increase over the next five years demonstrates President Obama's strong commitment to space exploration.” That is just over 1 percent a year, and $2.5 billion of it is committed to the shutdown of Constellation, the same amount proposed for research on how global warming is affecting the Earth.

The $19 billion for 2011 is less than 0.5 percent of the proposed federal budget, one-ninth of what it was at its peak in the 1960s. The $300 million increase eliminates the program of human space exploration and sentences the agency to the same starvation diet it has existed on for the past several decades. NASA needs a $3 billion increase to continue operating a viable human space program.

NASA spin is touting “new technology development programs to expand the capabilities of future explorers”— in-orbit fuel depots, rendezvous and docking, closed-loop life support systems, heavy-lift research and development of new engines, propellants, materials and combustion processes. These may sound new to someone unfamiliar with what NASA has been doing for 50 years, but (with one exception) they are pursuits for which NASA already has an unmatched reputation. Each of these would have played an essential role in the now canceled Constellation program. Without the focus of a specific mission, the raison d'être for these technologies is now “to advance the field of space science.”

In the place of the canceled Ares and Orion hardware, we now have increased support for education, increased spending on the discredited global warming hypocrisy and subsidies to several new commercial rocket companies. And, oh yes, don't forget a new outreach program to Muslim countries without established space programs.

In canceling Constellation with nothing to take its place, the president is saying the U.S. should not have its own human space program and is directing funds to the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program, or COTS. If NASA wants to participate in human spaceflight, it will have to be through contractors.
Market realities

NASA has always contracted for most of its hardware and service needs. Some of the contractors were successful in private industry, and sometimes the government was the sole customer. A company dependent solely on government grants, contracts and guarantees is not a free-market, private enterprise.

To succeed in the private sector a company must raise capital, develop a product, sell it at a profit and show a return on investment commensurate with the risk within a reasonable time frame. Unfortunately, space will not be an attractive commercial opportunity for the foreseeable future. Space exploration is a costly precursor to uncovering commercial opportunities, and it will be decades before a private investor can expect a return commensurate with the risk of exploration.

Until we find a way to make a profit in space, governments and countries are the only institutions able to afford space exploration and live with the extremely long-term returns. That is why NASA must continue to develop the next-generation human space system, whatever form that system may take. Human space systems cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of scientific return per dollar spent. Dominance in space gives our country credibility or leverage in so many other forms than economic gains; scientific discovery, understanding of the universe, international prestige, military stature and being seen as a country that can do anything we set our minds to.
Limited effect

The COTS program — companies selling services to NASA — made some sense with NASA still in the exploration business, doing the applied research and expanding the envelope of space travel beyond the moon. It would be very difficult for private companies to replicate the singular competence NASA has developed. Even if COTS-created vehicles are successful, they will be woefully inadequate for near-term needs and will do nothing for exploration.

Only government programs — regardless of country — will get humans to the moon and beyond. Space exploration is an activity from which monetary profits cannot be generated, leaving contractors supplying government programs that do not have to show a profit. After 50 years in space, how many lunar or interplanetary space probes have been launched by commercial space companies?

We have been told by the agency that future exploration programs, such as returning to the moon or going to Mars, will be a global effort, not an American one. That may sound appealing with respect to sharing costs and other resources, but it virtually guarantees those programs will take longer, cost more and render them vulnerable to political bickering — like the International Space Station. As a result of the political decision to make the Russians a full partner, the ISS has cost the U.S. $10 billion more, was two years late and required that the station be placed in an orbit unacceptable for most alternative uses.

Have we really degenerated as a country to the point where we can no longer fund our own exploration? Did we spend $460 billion becoming pre-eminent in space, only to stupidly surrender it? What does our new dependence on other countries to send Americans into space say about our culture, society and prospects for the future?

NASA was always considered in a class by itself. Now, when the world is becoming increasingly dependent on space-based systems, we seem bent on slipping back into mediocrity. How do you rationalize surrendering our pre-eminence in space? The last time a country voluntarily gave up its pre-eminent position in exploration was when the Ming government recalled the Chinese fleets in 1433. That critical error condemned China to worldwide stagnation for centuries.

NASA has always been a mission-driven agency that attracted a particular kind of individual. It focused on the objective, determined the obstacles, solved the problems and, in the end, accomplished the impossible. We all benefit from the technological fallout to our economy and our growing stature in the world. Continuing NASA's program of exploration requires three things: the technology, the resources and the will to do it. We have plenty of the first two, but have we lost the will?

Cunningham piloted the first manned Apollo mission in 1968 and is author of The All-American Boys.

Saturday, February 27, 2010

LPSC XVI-The Moon, Monday, March 1


Monday, March 1, 2010
8:30 a.m. Waterway Ballroom 6
Jeff Plescia & Mike Wargo

8:30 a.m. Vondrak R. * Keller J. Chin G. Garvin J. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at the Midpoint of the Exploration Mission [#1660] The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched on June 18, 2009 and arrived at the Moon five days later. This presentation updates the status and recent results from the LRO Exploration Mission, as well as the plans for the Science Mission.

8:55 a.m. Spence H. E. * CRaTER Science Team - Lunar Cosmic Ray Albedo Measurements Using the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [#2659] CRaTER measurement capabilities provide new insights on the spatial and temporal variability of the GCR populations and their interactions with the lunar surface.

9:20 a.m. Gladstone G. R. Initial Results from the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission [#2277] LAMP is a far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging spectrograph on NASA’s LRO mission. LAMP will map the Moon at FUV wavelengths, allowing new studies of the microphysical and reflectance properties of the regolith. Preliminary mapping and LCROSS support results are presented.

9:45 a.m. Mitrofanov I. * Boynton W. Chin G. Golovin D. Evans L. Harshman K. Garvin J. Kozyrev A. Litvak M. McClanahan T. Malakhov A. Milikh G. Mokrousov M. Nandikotkur G. Nuzhdin I. Sanin A. Starr R. Sagdeev R. Shevchenko V. Shvetsov V. Tretyakov V. Trombka J. Varennikov A. Vostrukhin A. LEND Experiment Onboard LRO: Testing Local Areas with High Concentrations of Hydrogen at the Lunar Poles [#2250] The LEND measurements of lunar neutron emission allow us to test local areas with high concentration of hydrogen at lunar poles and to compare two models of the nature of the hydrogen reach area.

10:10 a.m. Robinson M. S. * Eliason E. M. Hiesinger H. Jolliff B. L. McEwen A. S. Malin M. C. Ravine M. A. Thomas P. C. Turtle E. P. Bowman-Cisneros E. LROC Team - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: First Results [#1874] Overview of LROC data collection to date, with summary of early exploration and science results.

10:35 a.m. Bussey D. B. J. * Spudis P. D. Butler B. Carter L. M. Gillis-Davis J. J. Heggy E. Kirk R. Neish C. Nozette S. Patterson G. W. Robinson M. S. Raney R. K. Thompson T. Thomson B. J. Ustinov E. Initial Results from Mini-RF: A Synthetic Aperture Radar on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [#2319] Mini-RF is a lightweight Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument orbiting the Moon aboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. It is acquiring high-quality data in both S and X bands in support of the LRO mission goals.

11:00 a.m. Smith D. E. * Zuber M. T. Neumann G. A. Lemoine F. G. Mazarico E. Torrence M. H. Duxbury T. H. Head J. III Aharonson O. LOLA Science and Instrument Team - LOLA Observations of the Moon [#1993] The LOLA instrument on LRO has been operating since July 2009 and acquired significant altimetric data of the Moon.

11:25 a.m. Paige D. A. * Greenhagen B. T. Vasavada A. R. Allen C. Bandfield J. L. Bowles N. E. Calcutt S. B. DeJong E. M. Elphic R. C. Foote E. J. Foote M. C. Donaldson Hanna K. L. McCleese D. J. Ghent R. R. Glotch T. D. Hayne P. O. Lucey P. G. Murray B. C. Schofield J. T. Siegler M. A. Snook K. Soderblom L. A. Song E. Taylor F. W. Thomas I. R. Wyatt M. B. Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment: Early Mapping Mission Results [#2267] Diviner’s growing dataset is revealing the extreme nature of the lunar thermal environment and its diurnal and seasonal variability, as well as aspects of the Moon’s composition and the nature of the lunar polar cold traps.

LPSC-XLI (2010) - The Moon, Tuesday, March 2

Tuesday, March 2, 2010
8:30 a.m. Waterway Ballroom 6
Alian Wang & Jennifer Heldmann

8:30 a.m. Colaprete A. * Ennico K. Wooden D. Shirley M. Heldmann J. Marshall W. Sollitt L. Asphaug E. Korycansky D. Schultz P. Hermalyn B. Galal K. Bart G. D. Goldstein D. Summy D. Water and More: An Overview of LCROSS Impact Results [#2335] This talk reviews the current results from the LCROSS impact as observed by the instrument suite on the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft.

8:45 a.m. Heldmann J. L. * Colaprete T. Ennico K. Shirley M. Wooden D. LCROSS Science Team - Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Mission: Results from the Visible Camera and UV/Visible Spectrometer Aboard the Shepherding Spacecraft [#1015] This paper will report on science results from the visible camera and UV-visible spectrometer aboard the LCROSS shepherding spacecraft.

9:00 a.m. Wooden D. H. * Colaprete A. Ennico K. Shirley M. H. Heldmann J. L. LCROSS Science Team - Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Mission: Results from the Nadir Near-Infrared Spectrometer Aboard the Shepherding Spacecraft [#2025] The nadir-viewing Near-Infrared Spectrometer (1.17–2.45 μm) on the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft observed 4 min of the impact plume/curtain from the Centaur impact inside Cabeus Crater. We present identifications of water and other absorption bands.

9:15 a.m. Hong P. K. * Sugita S. Okamura N. Sekine Y. Terada H. Takatoh N. Hayano Y. Fuse T. Kawakita H. Wooden D. H. Young E. F. Lucey P. G. Furusho R. Watanabe J. Haruyama J. Nakamura R. Kurosawa K. Hamura T. Kadono T. Hot Bands Observation of Water in Ejecta Plume of LCROSS Impact Using the Subaru Telescope [#1939] We observed infrared spectra of LCROSS impacts using the Subaru telescope to find H2O hot band emission lines. Although there was no clear sign of H2O line detected, the upper limit of H2O mass is much lower than pre-impact predictions.

9:30 a.m. Hayne P. O. * Greenhagen B. T. Paige D. A. Foote M. C. Siegler M. A. Diviner Observations of the LCROSS Impact [#2484] With its synoptic-scale view of the LCROSS impact site from orbit, combined with excellent sensitivity across a broad range of temperatures, Diviner provides an important set of constraints on the impact process and subsequent evolution.

9:45 a.m. Schultz P. H. * Hermalyn B. Colaprete A. Ennico K. Shirley M. LCROSS Team - Interpreting the LCROSS-EDUS Impact [#2503] The LCROSS-EDUS impact excavated material from beneath a permanently shadowed region of the Moon. Here we discuss the results in the context of the impact with implications for the nature and source of buried volatiles.

10:00 a.m. Okamura N. * Sugita S. Hong P. K. Kawakita H. Sekine Y. Terada H. Takatoh N. Hayano Y. Fuse T. Wooden D. H. Young E. F. Lucey P. G. Furusho R. Watanabe J. Haruyama J. Nakamura R. Kurosawa K. Hamura T. Kadono T. The Estimate of the Amount of Ejecta in LCROSS Mission [#1821] Using the Subaru telescope, we observed LCROSS impacts. Although no clear signal of ejecta plume has been detected, an upper limit for the ejecta mass beyond 2.5 km of height is 1000 kg, only 1/20 of a pre-impact theoretical estimate.

10:15 a.m. Goswami J. N. * An Overview of the Chandrayaan-1 Mission [#1591] An overview of the Chandrayaan-1 mission, including performance of the eleven payloads, their lunar coverage and examples of salient results from the mission are presented. Chandrayaan-1 mission made important discoveries that provide new insights on lunar evolution.

10:30 a.m. Huang Q. * Ping J. S. Wieczorek M. A. Yan J. G. Su X. L. Improved Global Lunar Topographic Model by Chang’E-1 Laser Altimetry Data [#1265] The improved global lunar topographic model, a 360th degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of the lunar shape, is designated as Chang’E-1 Lunar Topography Model s01 (CLTM-s01).

10:45 a.m. Jiang J. S. * Wang Z. Z. Zhang X. H. Zhang D. H. Wu J. Li Y. Lei L. Q. Zhang W. G. Cui H. Y. Guo W. Li D. H. Dong X. L. Liu H. G. China Probe CE-1 Unveils the World First Moon-Globe Microwave Emission Map — The Microwave Moon: Some Exploration Results of Change’E-1 Microwave Sounder [#1125] With the data obtained by the China probe Chang’E-1 Lunar Microwave Sounder (CELMS), China has created a Moon globe microwave brightness temperature distribution map, and some new conclusions were drawn from it, which will make the Moon closer to its true nature.

11:00 a.m. Ling Z. C. * Zhang J. Zhang W. X. Liu J. J. Zhang G. L. Liu B. Liu J. Z. Preliminary Results of Mapping Iron Abundance from Chang’e-1 IIM Data [#2061] We present a preliminary study to map FeO from Chang’e-1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) data. As shown by our studies in comparison with Clementine UVVIS results, IIM data exhibit the potential to extract FeO abundance distributions on Moon surface.

11:15 a.m. Wu Y. Z. * Tang Z. S. Mapping the Absorption Center of the Lunar Minerals: Preliminary Results from CE-1 IIM Data [#1216] We showed our experience in the use of Chang’E-1 IIM data. We produced the global map of the stagnation point of the Moon with IIM data. This global map can contribute to the lunar research and has some potential to be explored.

11:30 a.m. Zhu M. H. * Chang J. Ma T. Xu A. A. Chang’E-1 Gamma-Ray Spectrometer and Its Preliminary Radioactive Results [#1046] This abstract describes the preliminary radioactive results on the lunar surface from Chang’E-1 gamma-ray spectrometer.

New map of water and hydroxyl on the moon from M3 data. Compare this image to that from Pieters et al. [3] Science cover image for October 23 where the same color scheme was used. Red = 2-micron pyroxene absorption band depth, green = 2.4-micron apparent reflectance, and blue = absorptions due to water and hydroxyl. In the scheme of color mixing, cyan (light blue) = green + blue, magenta = blue + red, and pink = blue + green + red. Yellow and orange = green plus red. Therefore, all blue, cyan, magenta and pink areas contain adsorbed water and/or hydroxyl, while red, green, yellow and orange contain little to no water or hydroxyl.

1:30 p.m. Waterway Ballroom 6
Francis McCubbin & Richard Elphic

1:30 p.m. Clark R. * Pieters C. M. Green R. O. Boardman J. Buratti B. J. Head J. W. III Isaacson P. J. Livo K. E. McCord T. B. Nettles J. W. Petro N. E. Sunshine J. M. Taylor L. A. Water and Hydroxyl on the Moon as Seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) [#2302] A new water+hydroxyl map was constructed using M3 data which shows that the water and hydroxyl detected by M3 is more extensive than first reported and in better agreement with the VIMS and Deep Impact results.

1:45 p.m. McCord T. B. * Taylor L. A. Orlando T. M. Pieters C. M. Combe J.-Ph. Kramer G. Sunshine J. M. Head J. W. Mustard J. F. Origin of OH/Water on the Lunar Surface Detected by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [#1860] We present characteristics of the M3 3-μm OH/H2O spectral feature across the observed Moon and explore solar-wind induced surface chemistry as the source.

2:00 p.m. Farrell W. M. * Killen R. M. Delory G. T. NLSI-DREAM Team - The Case of Reactive Surface Geochemistry at the Moon [#2228] There is a mounting body of evidence suggesting that there are active geochemical processes occurring at the lunar surface.

2:15 p.m. Hurley D. * Surficial OH/H2O on the Moon: Modeling Delivery, Redistribution, and Loss [#1844] We model the solar wind interaction with the lunar regolith to understand the observations of OH on the lunar surface and what they imply for the migration of water to the lunar poles.

2:30 p.m. Burke D. * Dukes C. A. Famá M. Kim J. Shi J. Baragiola R. A. Negligible Contribution of Solar Wind Protons to Surficial Lunar Water: Laboratory Studies [#2567] We performed a series of laboratory simulations irradiating lunar simulants with low and high energy protons and examined the results of infrared reflectance absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) for signs of the O-H absorption band for water.

2:45 p.m. Zent A. P. * Ichimura A. I. McCord T. B. Taylor L. A. Production of OH/H2O in Lunar Samples via Proton Bombardment [#2665] We report on a laboratory simulation of solar-wind lunar implantation, and demonstrate that we are able to dehydrate/dehydroxylate lunar samples, expose them to moderately energetic H plasma, and detect the presence of newly formed OH/H2O.

3:00 p.m. Elphic R. C. * Paige D. A. Siegler M. A. Vasavada A. R. Eke V. R. Teodoro L. F. A. Lawrence D. J. South Pole Hydrogen Distribution for Present Lunar Conditions: Implications for Past Impacts [#2732] We compare the inferred hydrogen distribution at the Moon’s south pole to what might be expected after deposition from a large, volatile-rich impact, as the deposits evolve with time under model temperatures.

3:15 p.m. Mazarico E. * LOLA Science Team - Illumination of the Lunar Poles From Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Topographic Data [#1828] LOLA data enable precise modeling of polar illumination conditions over timescales relevant to mission planning. At 10 m above the surface, an area near the South Pole offers 95% average illumination, and continuous sunlight ~200 days in most years.

3:30 p.m. Greenwood J. P. * Itoh S. Sakamoto N. Taylor L. A. Warren P. H. Yurimoto H. Water in Apollo Rock Samples and the D/H of Lunar Apatite [#2439] Hydrogen isotopes of lunar water in apatite are measured in Apollo rock samples for the first time. The Moon has a unique D/H.

3:45 p.m. McCubbin F. M. * Steele A. Nekvasil H. Schnieders A. Rose T. Fries M. Carpenter P. K. Jolliff B. L. Detection of Structurally Bound Hydroxyl in Apatite from Apollo Mare Basalt 15058,128 Using TOF-SIMS [#2468] Using TOF-SIMS, we have shown that hydroxyl is present within apatite in lunar mare basalt 15058,128. This is the first find of water in a lunar magmatic mineral, and this result holds important implications for the water content of the lunar interior.

4:00 p.m. Liu Y. * Boyce J. W. Rossman G. R. Guan Y. Eiler J. Taylor L. A. Water in Lunar Mare Basalt: Confirmation from Apatite in Lunar Basalt 14053 [#2647] We present direct analyses of H (presumably OH) in apatite through ion microprobe measurements of apatite in Apollo 14 basalt 14053 (1640 ± 180 ppm H2O by weight), with implications to water in the primary melt.

4:15 p.m. Elkins-Tanton L. T. * Water in the Lunar Mantle: Results from Magma Ocean Modeling [#1451] Modeling lunar magma ocean solidification including a small amount of initial water produces predictions for the locations and quantities of water that should be found in the lunar interior, and which would have been de-gassed and possibly interacted with the lunar surface.

4:30 p.m. Grieves G. * Hibbitts C. A. Dyar M. D. Orlando T. M. Poston M. Johnson A. Mobility and Subsurface Redistribution of Volatiles Through Regolith Materials [#2552] Increasing evidence supports the notion that water is present on the Moon. We report here on development of models to assess the mobility of volatiles such as hydrogen (as H2O and OH) on grain surfaces within the top meter of a regolith.

Figure 1. from x-ray composite image made with the electron microprobe, red represents aluminum, green, magnesium, and blue, iron. A glassy impact-melt vein with several large vesicles cuts through the breccia on the right side. Bx=Breccia, OPB=Olivine Phyric Basalt, OGC=Olivine Gabbro Cumulate [LPSC 2010, 2593]

7:00 p.m. Town Center Exhibit Area

Gyollai I. Gucsik A. Nagy Sz. Fürj J. Bérczi Sz. Szekrényes Zs. Veres M. Petrographic and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Shocked Feldspar in Asuka-881757 Lunar Gabbro Meteorite Sample [#1602] In Asuka-881757 lunar meteorite we measured by mid-infrared spectroscopy (reflectance mode) shocked feldspars with: (1) undulatory extinction, (2) undulatory extinction with isotropic patches, (3) isotropy, lath-shaped feldspars (maskelynite).

Isaacson P. J. Liu Y. Patchen A. D. Pieters C. M. Taylor L. A. Spectroscopy of Lunar Meteorites as Constraints for Ground Truth: Expanded Sample Collection Diversity [#1927] We present new integrated mineralogy/petrography/spectroscopy results for a suite of lunar meteorite samples. These results will be needed to apply these samples as ground truth and to determine their geologic context through remote sensing.

Takeda H. Kobayashi S. Yamaguchi A. Otsuki M. Ohtake M. Haruyama J. Morota T. Karouji Y. Hasebe N. Nakamura R. Ogawa Y. Matsunaga T. Olivine Fragments in Dhofar 307 Lunar Meteorite and Surface Materials of the Farside Large Basins [#1572] Based on mineralogy of clasts derived from spinel troctolite and very low Th contents of Dhofar 307, we found that Dirichlet-Jackson basin in the lowest-Th region found by the GRS onboard Kaguya, is a good candidate where the breccia was developed.

Basilevsky A. T. Neukum G. Nyquist L. Lunar Meteorites: What They Tell Us About the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Mare Basalts [#1214] An analysis of data from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium shows that a significant fraction of lunar meteorite source craters are less than hundreds of meters in diameter; cryptomaria are abundant in the highlands; and the meteorite mare basalt ages fill the gaps in the Apollo/Luna basalt age distribution.

Robinson K. L. Treiman A. H. Mare Basalt Fragments in Lunar Highlands Meteorites: Connecting Measured Ti Abundances with Orbital Remote Sensing [#1788] We retrieved Ti contents of parent magmas for seven basalt clasts in highlands meteorites. The magmas are VLT and low-Ti basalts. A histogram of their Ti contents is similar to that from global remote sensing, and not like that of the Apollo mare basalts.

Gibson K. E. Jolliff B. L. Zeigler R. A. Korotev R. L. Testing Petrogenetic Relationships of the Lunar NWA 773 Meteorite Clan with Nickel and Cobalt in Olivine [#2593] This study tests the apparent petrogenetic relationship between volcanic and cumulate lithologies in the lunar NWA 773 meteorite clan by using bulk compositions and high precision electron microprobe analyses of Ni and Co in olivine.

Zhang A. C. Taylor L. A. Hsu W. B. Floss C. Li X. H. Liu Y. Petrogenesis of Lunar Meteorite Northwestern Africa 2977: Rare Earth Element Geochemistry and Baddeleyite Pb/Pb Dating [#1052] This abstract reports REE geochemistry of minerals in NWA 2977 and precise baddeleyite Pb/Pb dating.

Kuehner S. M. Irving A. J. Gellissen M. Korotev R. L. Petrology and Composition of Lunar Troctolitic Granulite Northwest Africa 5744: A Unique Recrystallized, Magnesian Crustal Sample [#1552] We describe the petrologic, major and trace element characteristics of a highly recrystallized granulitic breccia formed from a magnesian troctolitic protolith in the ancient lunar crust.

Korotev R. L. Zeigler R. A. Jolliff B. L. New Geochemical Constraints on Pairing of the Dhofar 961 Clan of Lunar Meteorites [#2126] New data support the hypothesis that the unusual and heterogeneous Dhofar 925, 960, and 961 lunar meteorite stones are paired.

Joy K. H. Crawford I. A. Snape J. F. Lunar Meteorite Miller Range 07006: Petrography and VLT Basalt Clast Inventory [#1793] MIL 07006 is a feldspathic, basalt bearing, regolith breccia lunar meteorite likely paired to Yamato-791197. We discuss the petrography and crystallization history of several very low-Ti basalt clasts.

7:00 p.m. Town Center Exhibit Area

Meyer C. - Lunar Sample Compendium [#1016] The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon.

Carpenter P. K. Zeigler R. A. Jolliff B. L. Advances in Defocused-Beam Electron-Probe Microanalysis [#2656] Advances in defocused-beam electron-probe microanalysis are presented, with an Excel VBA algorithm which uses a polynomial alpha factor correction algorithm coupled with a catanorm procedure to correct DBA data.

O’Sullivan K. M. Neal C. R. Petrogenesis of Apollo 12 Basalts 12031 and 12038 [#2307] We report crystal size distributions along with major and minor element abundances to model the petrogenesis of these rocks.

Singer K. I. Riches A. J. V. Patchen A. Liu Y. Taylor L. A. Insights into the Petrogenesis of Apollo 17 High-Ti Mare Basalts [#2694] We report petrographic and mineralogical results of a detailed study of several Apollo 17 samples to complement recent Fe and O isotopic studies.

Liu Y. Spicuzza M. J. Valley J. W. Day J. M. D. Riches A. J. V. Singer K. I. Taylor L. A. Diversity in High-Titanium Lunar Mare Basalts [#1669] This abstract describes the diversity in high-Ti mare basalts.

Krawczynski M. J. Sutton S. R. Barr J. A. Grove T. L. Titanium Valence in Lunar Ultramafic Glasses and Olivine-Diogenites [#1825] The valence of Ti in lunar glasses and olivine-diogenites is a function of melt composition and compatibility of Ti3+ in Fe-Mg minerals. The differences between glass and coexisting minerals suggests a non-quenchability of the Ti valence in glass.

Donohue P. H. Neal C. R. Apollo 17 High-Ti Basalt Crystal Size Distributions and Petrogenesis [#2073] Crystal size distributions and geochemical data are presented for ilmenite in 16 Apollo 17 high-Ti basalts, encompassing all compositional types (A, B1, B2, C, D). This allows for constraints to be placed on petrogenetic history of these samples.

Fagan A. L. Neal C. R. Simonetti A. Apollo 14 Olivine Vitrophyres: Geochemical Evidence for Heterogeneous Target Materials [#2226] We suggest that, using textural and geochemical analyses, Apollo 14 olivine vitrophyre 14321,1486 provides evidence of a heterogenous target material consisting of high-Ti basalt, low-Ti basalt, and highlands material.

Liang Y. Schiemenz A. Parmentier E. M. Melting and Melt Migration in a Heterogeneous Lunar Mantle: Physical Processes and Chemical Consequences [#2241] Using numerical simulation we show that the distribution of key melt migration features, such as the depth of dunite channel, are strongly correlated with the amount and spatial distribution of the heterogeneous materials in the lunar mantle.

Fifteen degrees of Oceanus Procellarum, centered southwest of the Marius Domes (750 nm / Clementine 1994), 300 degrees longitude east to 315, and from the equator in the south to 15 degrees North latitude (top). The area studied by Weider, Crawford and Joy (1300) "showing the major surface features and lava flow boundaries" lava flow relevant to their work are marked P53 and P24.

Weider S. Z. Crawford I. A. Joy K. H. Impact Craters: Windows Through Lava Flows in Oceanus Procellarum [#1300] Using Clementine multispectral data we have identified impact craters within a specific lava flow that have excavated material from a deeper and older lithology, their diameters can be used to estimate the thickness of the surface flow.

Hagerty J. J. Hawke B. R. Giguere T. A. Gaddis L. R. Lawrence D. J. The Thorium Abundance Distribution of the Humorum Pyroclastic Deposit [#2624] A large pyroclastic glass deposit has been identified in the southwestern part of Mare Humorum. We use forward modeling of Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer thorium data to place compositional and petrogenetic constraints on the deposit.

Kobayashi S. Kobayashi M. Hareyama M. Hasebe N. Shibamura E. Yamashita N. Karouji Y. Okada T. d’Uston C. Gasnault O. Forni O. Reedy R. C. Kim K. J. Takeda H. Arai T. Sugihara T. Dohm J. M. Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Team - The Lowest Thorium Region on the Lunar Surface Imaged by Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer [#1795] The lowest Th region in the lunar farside occurs near the equatorial region (Zone A and B) and it should be noted that the regions well correspond to the lunar highest region and the thickest crust region recently measured by Kaguya mission.

Forni O. Gasnault O. d’Uston C. Maurice S. Hasebe N. Yamashita N. Kobayashi S. Karouji Y. Hareyama M. Kobayashi M. Reedy R. C. Kim K. J. SELENE GRS Team - Large Scale Potassium-Thorium Fractionation Around Imbrium [#1944] We investigate the K/Th ratio using the GRS of Kaguya. We demonstrate that K and Th behaves differently at the lunar surface by means of ICA. We show that high K/Th ratio are encountered concentrically around the Imbrium event and suggest some explanation to that behaviour.

Narendranath S. Sreekumar P. Kellett B. J. Joy K. H. Howe C. J. Crawford I. A. Grande M. Alha L. Maddison B. Huovelin J. Erd C. Athiray P. S. Weider S. Z. C1XS Team - Lunar Chemistry from Chandrayaan-1, C1XS Results from Southern Nearside Highlands of the Moon [#1882] Results from the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) flown on the Indian lunar mission from the analysis of a C3 flare for a region on the southern nearside highlands are presented.

Craddock P. R. Dauphas N. Clayton R. N. Mineralogical Control on Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Lunar Differentiation and Magmatism [#1230] We report Fe isotope values of mineral separates (pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite) in lunar mare basalt samples. The data identify possible controls on Fe isotope fractionation seen in lunar basalts produced by mantle differentiation and magmatism.

Armytage R. M. G. Georg R. B. Williams H. M. Halliday A. N. Terrestrial Silicon Isotope Composition of Lunar Rocks [#1746] We present new high precision silicon isotope data for lunar rocks which are consistent with isotopic equilibration in the aftermath of the lunar forming impact.

Fitoussi C. Bourdon B. Pahlevan K. Wieler R. Si Isotope Constraints on the Moon-forming Impact [#2653] The giant impact could have affected the Si isotope composition of the Moon, as it should have resulted in a vaporization of precursors of the lunar material. The analysis of Si isotopes in lunar rocks provides insights into the formation of Moon.

Seddio S. M. Korotev R. L. Jolliff B. L. Zeigler R. A. Comparing the Bulk Compositions of Lunar Granites, with Petrologic Implications [#2688] Crystallization modeling to match the composition of lunar granite sample 12032,366-19 and compositions of other pristine lunar granites indicates extreme fractional crystallization of KREEP or a similarly compositionally evolved starting melt.

Fischer-Gödde M. Becker H. Wombacher F. Highly Siderophile Element Abundances and 187Os/188Os in Lunar Impact Melt Rocks: Implications for Late Accretion Processes in the Earth-Moon System [#2262] We report new highly siderophile element abundance and 187Os/188Os data for lunar impact melt rocks from Apollo 14, 16 and 17 landing sites, and the lunar meteorite DaG400.

Charlier B. Namur O. Grove T. L. Anorthosite in the Sept Iles Layered Intrusion (Canada): Ideas for the Formation of the Lunar Crust [#1231] Anorthosite formation processes and the accumulation of buoyant plagioclase at the base and the top of the 5000 km2 Sept Iles layered intrusion are used as analogue to explain the origin of the vertically zoned lower and upper lunar crusts.

Uemoto K. Ohtake M. Haruyama J. Matsunaga T. Yokota Y. Morota T. Nakamura R. Yamamoto S. Iwata T. Purest Anorthosite Distribution in the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Derived from SELENE Multiband Imager [#1635] In this study, we analyzed rock types of craters within The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and investigated the distribution of purest anorthosite. From our analyzes, we confirmed that the anorthosite rocks present within the transient cavity.

Miura Yas. Calicium-rich Plagioclases Formed by Giant Impact Event to the Lunar Crust [#2462] The lunar crust with anorthositic compositions is considered to be derived from primordial Earth during impact, which is found in C, N and Cl elements of lunar basalts, and Ca-plagioclase formation at hot carbon dioxide gas at Mutsure-jima, Japan.

Edmunson J. Cohen B. A. Carpenter P. Zeigler R. A. Jolliff B. L. Yttrium Silicate in Lunar Troctolitic Anorthosite 76335 [#2627] An yttrium silicate was found in Mg-suite troctolitic anorthosite 76335. Major, minor, and trace element data are presented for the yttrium silicate.

Giant impact simulation of a Mars-sized body striking the Earth with properties described in GIANT IMPACT THEORY FOR ORIGIN OF THE MOON: HIGH RESOLUTION CTH SIMULATIONS (1405) D. A. Crawford and M. E. Kipp, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

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Zindler A. Jacobsen S. B. Rethinking Lunar Formation: Back to the Future? [#2702] Review Giant Impact and arguments for formation of the Moon from the Earth’s mantle.

Canup R. M. Barr A. C. Modeling Moon-forming Impacts; High-Resolution SPH and CTH Simulations [#2488] We compare results from SPH and CTH simulations of Moon-forming impacts, in particular to determine the effect of resolution and simulation method on the fraction of orbiting protolunar disk material that originates from the impactor vs. the proto-Earth’s mantle.

Crawford D. A. Kipp M. E. Giant Impact Theory for Origin of the Moon: High Resolution CTH Simulations [#1405] We present high resolution simulations of the giant impact theory of lunar origin using adaptive mesh refinement, an improved ANEOS representation and self gravity. The calculation shows clumping, spiral shocks and streamer development.

Zhong S. J. Are Mare Basalt Volcanism, Volatile Distribution in the Lunar Mantle, and Moonquakes Related? [#2063] A new hypothesis on mare basalts, moonquakes, and lunar interior structures including volatile distributions is proposed. The new hypothesis is to be tested with new tidal deformation model that accounts for heterogeneous lunar mantle structure.

Pidgeon R. T. Nemchin A. A. Grange M. L. Meyer C. Evidence for a Lunar “Cataclysm” at 4.34 Ga from Zircon U-Pb Systems [#1126] The dating of large impacts on the Moon is a major problem for lunar evolution. We discuss evidence from SIMS UPb analyses of zircons from lunar breccias, together with textural and mineral data, for an extremely large impact on the Moon at ~4.34Ga.

Connelly J. N. Borg L. E. Revisiting the Pb Isotopic System in Lunar Ferroan Anorthosite 60025 [#1966] After extensive pre-cleaning and using a stepwise dissolution procedure, we have analyzed Pb from a mafic fraction from lunar ferroan anorthosite 60025 to determine a preliminary Pb-Pb crystallization age of 4382 ± 8 Ma.

Jacobsen S. B. Ranen M. C. Chakrabarti R. Farkaš J. Huang S. Parai R. Yu G. Zindler A. The Isotopic Composition of the Lunar Crust and the Age and Origin of the Moon: Evidence from Lunar Soils [#2596] Trace element and isotope data show that our lunar soil samples span the entire range of compositions from an >4.46 Ga old, almost pure highland end-member to a ~3.8 Ga KREEP end member.

Zhang A. Hsu W. Li X. Li Q. Tang G. Jiang Y. Cameca IMS-1280 Pb/Pb Dating of Baddeleyite in LAP 02224 [#1080] This abstract reports baddeleyite Pb/Pb dating results of LAP 02224. Our data show that the crystallization age of LAP 02224 is much older than that from other methods (~3 to 3.1 Ga).

Arai T. Yoshitake M. Tomiyama T. Niihara T. Yokoyama T. Kaiden H. Misawa K. Irving A. J. Support for a Prolonged KREEP Magmatism: U-Pb Age Dating of Zircon and Baddeleyite in Lunar Meteorite NWA 4485 [#2379] The U-Pb and Pb-Pb age spectrum of 4352–3922 Ma obtained from analyses of zircon and baddeleyite in a KREEP-rich lunar meteorite NWA 4485 supports a prolonged KREEP magmatism, which has been suggested from U-Pb isotopic studies of zircons in the Apollo non-mare samples.

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Gibson E. K. Pillinger C. T. Re-Assessment of “Water on the Moon” After LCROSS [#1829] Detection of water on the lunar surface by recent spacecraft in orbit and from impactors into permanently shadowed regions must take into account available information from past analysis of the Apollo sample collection. Solar wind production of volatiles must be considered.

Shearer C. K. Sharp Z. D. Brearley A. King P. L. Fischer T. A “Dry” Versus a “Wet” Moon. The Effect of Potential Indigenous Water on the Composition of Lunar Volcanic Gases and Sublimates [#1941] As another perspective for evaluating the controversy between a “wet” and “dry” Moon, we are examining the effect of variable water content on the composition of lunar volcanic gases and sublimation products.

Crotts A. P. S. Hummels C. Outgassing/Regolith Interactions and Lunar Hydration [#2079] A model of lunar interior outgassing successfully predicted that hydrated regolith would be found in a patchy distribution concentrated within ~20° of the poles, as detected by the Chandrayaan-1 M3 and in hydrogen by epithermal neutron absorption.

Zhang Y. Wang K. L. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts and Lunar Volatile Budget [#1120] We will model bubble growth rates in lunar basaltic melts and examine the controlling factors. Various means to constrain volatile contents in the Moon will also be discussed.

Starukhina L. V. Shkuratov Y. G. Simulation of 3-μm Absorption Band in Lunar Spectra: Water or Solar Wind Induced Hydroxyl? [#1385] Theoretical simulation of 3-μm absorption bands in lunar reflectance spectra shows that chemical trapping of solar wind protons and formation of OH groups in the rims of lunar regolith particles can be responsible for the observed absorption.

Vilas F. Harvieux N. F. Jensen E. A. Jarvis K. S. Domingue D. L. Search for 0.7-μm Absorption Feature in Galileo Lunmos 9 Images: Implications for Lunar Surface Composition [#2136] Recent spacecraft observations show evidence of the 3-μm water of hydration absorption feature across the lunar surface. We examine Lunmos 9 and Lunmap 14 detections of an absorption feature at 0.7-μm suggesting oxidized iron in phyllosilicates.

Kim K. J. Reedy R. C. Drake D. M. Hasebe N. Numerical Simulation of Gamma-Ray and Neutron Production in the Lunar Surface Using the MCNPX Code System [#2420] The production of gamma-rays and neutrons in the lunar surface investigated by the MCNPX code is useful in understanding production mechanisms for secondary particle fluxes, especially both neutrons and gamma-rays in planetary surfaces.

Lawrence D. J. Feldman W. C. Elphic R. C. Maurice S. Hurley D. M. Miller R. S. Sensitivity of Neutron Measurements to the Thickness and Abundance of Surfical Lunar Water [#1471] Lunar Prospector neutron data do not show strong evidence for a H signature at Goldschmidt crater. Based on new neutron transport models, the thickness of the H-rich material detected by the NIR spectral data is less than 0.5 cm.

McClanahan T. P. Mitrofanov I. G. Boynton W. V. Sagdeev R. Trombka J. I. Starr R. D. Evans L. G. Litvak M. L. Chin G. Garvin J. Sanin A. B. Malakhov A. Milikh G. M. Harshman K. Finch M. J. Nandikotkur G. Correlation of Lunar South Polar Epithermal Neutron Maps: Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector and Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer [#1395] Research compares a corrected preliminary south polar epithermal rate map from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) with the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer epithermal rate map using several analytical techniques.

Sanin A. Mitrofanov I. Boynton W. Chin G. Demidov N. Garvin J. Golovin D. Evans L. Harshman K. Kozyrev A. Litvak M. Malakhov A. McClanahan T. Milikh G. Mokrousov M. Nandikotkur G. Nuzhdin I. Sagdeev R. Shevchenko V. Shvetsov V. Starr R. Tretyakov V. Trombka J. Usikov D. Varennikov A. Vostrukhin A. Mapping of Lunar Hydrogen According to the LEND Neutron Measurements Onboard the NASA LRO [#2437] In this study we would like to present some preliminary estimations of hydrogen distribution along polar regions based on the LEND measurements of neutron flux from the Moon.

Figure 1. from LUNAR POLAR ILLUMINATION CONDITIONS DERIVED USING KAGUYA LASER DATA (2293) "Comparison between two Kaguya-derived simulations and actual Clementine images of the region near Shackleton crater. Earth is towards the top of the images. The Sun direction for the top images is 15°W and for the bottom images is 167°E. The Kaguya DEM can be used to accurately predict the illumination conditions."

Bussey D. B. J. McGovern J. A. Spudis P. D. Neish C. Sorensen S. Noda H. Ishihara Y. - Lunar Polar Illumination Conditions Derived Using Kaguya Laser Data [#2293] We have used the Kaguya laser-derived topography data to fully characterize the lunar polar illumination conditions. We have generated illumination profiles for the areas that receive the most illumination.

Wang K. L. Xu Z. Zhang Y. Calibration for Infrared Measurements of Water in Apatite [#1121] We report a study on calibration of infrared (IR) method to determine water concentration in apatite using the elastic recoil detection (ERD) method. The calibration will allow us to constrain water content in lunar and martian apatites using IR spectra.

Sharp Z. D. Shearer C. K. Barnes J. D. The Chlorine Isotope Composition of the Moon [#2424] The Cl isotope composition of lunar samples varies from –0.74 to +16.00‰. The high values are due to loss of the light isotope by solar wind bombardment, micrometeorite impact and/or higher (escape) velocities of the light HCl isotopologue.

Wetzel D. Rutherford M. J. Hauri E. H. Saal A. E. - Carbon in Lunar Magmas: Abundance, Speciation and Role in Magmatic Processes [#1827] The results of SIMS and RAMAN analyses on previous experiments and the results of new graphite-saturated experiments for both the A17 orange and A15 green glass compositions indicate the abundance, speciation, and role of carbon in lunar magmas.

Visible Camera Image of LCROSS Ejecta. Visible ejecta reaching sunlight a few seconds after the impact into Cabeus. (Image has been processed to enhance visibility of plume). Figure 1 from LCROSS EJECTA DYNAMICS: INSIGHT FROM EXPERIMENTS (2095).

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Killen R. M. Potter A. E. Hurley D. M. Plymate C. Naidu S. Observations of the LCROSS Impact Event from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope: Sodium and Dust [#2333] We used the McMath-Pierce telescope to observe sodium ejected as a result of the LCROSS impact onto the Moon on Oct. 9, 2009. We also observed in light of two orthogonal polarizations to detect dust. We observed 2 kg of sodium but saw no evidence for dust.

Hastie M. Bailey V. Hinz P. Callahan S. Vaitheeswaran V. Gibson D. Porter D. Vilas F. LCROSS Impact Observations from the MMT Observatory [#2501] MMT Observatory spectra and images of the LCROSS impact into the Cabeus Crater during spacecraft impact are described.

Storrs A. D. Colaprete A. Observations of the LCROSS Lunar Impact from Hubble Space Telescope [#2196] We present results of the HST observations in support of the impact of the LCROSS mission into a permanently shadowed crater near the south pole of the Moon.

Hurley D. M. Gladstone R. Retherford K. Stern S. Parker J. Kaufmann D. Egan A. Davis M. Versteeg M. Slater D. Miles P. Steffl A. Greathouse T. Feldman P. Pryor W. Hendrix A. Killen R. Potter A. Modeling the Vapor Plume Expansion Resulting from the LCROSS Impact on the Moon [#2308] We present simulations of the gas emitted in the LCROSS vapor plume.

Summy D. P. Goldstein D. B. Varghese P. L. Trafton L. M. Colaprete A. Gas and Dust Dynamic Model of the LCROSS Impacts [#2091] We present the latest developments in our model of the LCROSS impact plumes, focusing on new features designed to match results from LCROSS and LRO observations.

Artemieva N. Magic of an Impact Plume — Insight from Numerical Modeling [#1968] Numerical models are used to unveil some secrets of an impact plume and to clarify its role in the impact ejecta deposition. The Ries and Chicxulub craters are discussed.

Hermalyn B. Schultz P. H. Colaprete A. Shirley M. Ennico K. LCROSS Ejecta Dynamics: Insight from Experiments [#2095] The LCROSS mission impacted the Moon in a permanently shadowed region on October 9, 2009. This study presents initial results of an experimental campaign designed to understand and interpret the unique conditions of the LCROSS impact event.

Stubbs T. J. Wang Y. Mazarico E. Neumann G. A. Smith D. E. Zuber M. T. Torrence M. H. Characterizing the Optical Shadowing at the Moon Using LOLA Topographic Data: Predictions for the LCROSS Impact [#2410] We describe an optical shadowing model for the Moon that uses LOLA topographic data. Example predictions are shown for the time of the LCROSS impact.

Stubbs T. J. Wang Y. Farrell W. M. Halekas J. S. Vondrak R. R. Mazarico E. Neumann G. A. Smith D. E. Zuber M. T. Torrence M. H. Characterizing the Plasma Shadowing and Surface Charging at the Moon Using LOLA Topographic Data: Predictions for the LCROSS Impact [#2658] We describe a plasma shadowing code for the Moon that uses LOLA topographic data. The output is used with plasma wake and surface charging models to predict surface potentials. We show example predictions for the time of the LCROSS impact.

Neish C. D. Bussey D. B. J. Spudis P. Thomson B. Patterson G. W. Carter L. Mini-RF Science Team - Mini-RF Observations in Support of LCROSS [#2075] Cabeus water; Observed by LCROSS, not SAR; No lunar skat[ing] rinks?

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Oshigami S. Yamaguchi Y. Okuno S. Ono T. Ohtake M. Subsurface Structure of Mare Serenitatis Observed with Lunar Radar Sounder and Multiband Imager Onboard Kaguya [#1576] Radar reflectors are detected under a large area of Mare Serenitatis. Meanwhile, layered structures are discernible on some crater walls in mineral content maps of the mare. We discuss characteristics of the subsurface layers by comparing these data.

Shankar B. Osinski G. Antonenko I. Stooke P. J. Mest S. Multispectral Study of the Schrödinger Impact Basin [#2542] A multispectral study using Clementine UV-VIS data to determine the compositions of mapped geologic units within the Schrödinger Impact Basin.

Arnold J. A. Glotch T. D. Bandfield J. L. Greenhagen B. T. Lucey P. G. Wyatt M. Paige D. Local-Scale Spectral Variability of the South Pole-Aitken Basin [#2023] Preliminary results of mapping mafic materials within the SPA basin using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment.

Thaisen K. G. Taylor L. A. Head J. W. Pieters C. M. Isaacson P. J. Kramer G. Y. McCord T. B. Staid M. Petro N. E. - Geology of the Moscoviense Basin: Implications for the Character of the Highland Crust [#2169] Combining M3 spectral imagery, hi-resolution imagery, and new DEM to exploring the Moscoviense Basin may provide insights into the FHT crust and secondary magmatic process of the early Moon.

Dickson J. L. Head J. W. III Smith D. E. Zuber M. T. Neumann G. Fassett C. LOLA Team - Lunar Orientale Basin: Topographic Characterization from Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data and Insights into Multi-Ringed Basin Formation [#1031] Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data have provided new insight into Orientale and the nature of multi-ring impact basin formation, the role of pre-existing topography, processes of ring formation, and the evolution of the inner depression.

Head J. W. III Pieters C. Staid M. Mustard J. Taylor L. McCord T. Isaacson P. Klima R. Petro N. Clark R. Nettles J. Whitten J. M3 Team - - Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data [#1032] Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data have provided new insight into the distribution, morphology and morphometry of volcanic vents, such as sinuous rilles, in the Orientale basin and their relationship to ring structures and basin thermal evolution.

Whitten J. Head J. Staid M. Pieters C. Mustard J. Taylor L. McCord T. Isaacson P. Klima R. Nettles J. M3 Team - Characteristics, Affinities and Ages of Volcanic Deposits Associated with the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3 ) Data: Mare Stratigraphy [#1841] Orientale basin contains many volcanic deposits, including Mare Orientale, Lacus Veris, and Lacus Autumni have been redated using statistical crater counting techniques. Several new mare ponds have been identified in the western part of the basin.

Garry W. B. Robinson M. S. LROC Team - Observations of Flow Lobes in the Phase I Lavas, Mare Imbrium, the Moon [#2278] The Phase I lavas in Mare Imbrium on the Moon have previously been defined only by albedo and color boundaries on the surface. We present LROC NAC images of flow lobes in the Phase I lavas and implications for emplacement parameters.

Xiao Z. Zeng Z. Ding N. Hu C. Origin of Pit Chains in the Floor of Lunar Copernican Craters — Example of Crater Copernicus, Aristarchus and Tycho [#1034] The inner crater floor pit chains in lunar Copernican craters are originated from the activity of faults while there are two possible formation mechanism of the round crater floor pit chains.

Xiao Z. Zeng Z. Xiao L. Origin of Polygons in the Crater Floor of Tycho [#1526] Polygons in the floor of crater Tycho are orignated from the uplift of subsurface magma while the source of the magma is still undetermined.

Korteniemi J. Eldridge D. L. Lough T. Werblin L. Singer K. Kring D.- Assessment of Lunar Volcanic Morphological Diversity: Distribution of Floor-fractured Craters [#1335] A survey of floor-fractured craters on the Moon from global data. They are locations where a multitude of volcanic deposits can be sampled, and they should thus be taken into account when considering landing sites for future missions.

Srisutthiyakorn N. Kiefer W. S. Kirchoff M. Spatial Distribution of Volcanos in the Marius Hills and Comparison with Volcanic Fields on Earth and Venus [#1185] The spatial concentration of volcanos in the Marius Hills on the Moon is comparable to the concentration in the Snake River Plains of Idaho and for a number of volcanic dome fields on Venus.

Gustafson J. O. Bell J. F. III Gaddis L. R. Hawke B. R. Robinson M. S. LROC Science Team - Analysis of Pyroclastic Deposits on the Southeastern Limb of the Moon Using LROC and Clementine Spectral Reflectance Data [#1862] LROC NAC, LROC WAC, and Clementine data are being used to study potential pyroclastic deposits. NAC and WAC data are used to examine morphology and confirm pyroclastic origin. WAC and Clementine data are used to constrain composition.

Hawke B. R. Giguere T. A. Lawrence S. J. Campbell B. A. Gaddis L. R. Gustafson J. O. Hagerty J. J. Peterson C. A. Robinson M. S. LROC Team - LROC and Other Remote Sensing Studies of Pyroclastic Deposits in the Mare Humorum Region [#1583] The two large regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by pyroclastic glasses. LROC NAC images show that the thickest portion of the SWH deposit is dark, flat, smooth, and deficient in blocks >1m across.

Lough T. Gregg T. K. P. Geologic Mapping of the Aristarchus Plateau Region on the Moon [#2370] We present preliminary mapping of a 13° × 10° area around Aristarchus plateau, located in Lunar Quadrangle 10, with the goal of inferring changes in magma properties and volcanic plumbing through detailed mapping of surficial deposits.

Morota T. Haruyama J. Ohtake M. Matsunaga T. Yokota Y. Honda C. Sugihara T. Kimura J. Ishihara Y. Kawamura T. Iwasaki A. Saiki K. Takeda H. Mare Volcanism on the Farside and in the Orientale Region of the Moon [#1309] Dating of lunar mare basalts is necessary for understanding the volcanic history of the Moon. Here we performed new crater counts in mare deposits on the farside and in the Orientale region, using new images obtained by SELENE Terrain Camera.

Payne C. J. Spudis P. D. Bussey B. Thomson B. J. Scattering Properties of Lunar Geological Units Revealed by the Mini-SAR Imaging Radar, Chandrayaan-1 Mission [#1211] We have collected data from Mini-SAR orbital radar on the surface scattering properties of several lunar geological units of varying age and origin with the aim of understanding the physical properties of the surface of the Moon.

Well-preserved impact melt flows observed on the southern flank of Giordano Bruno crater (35.9° N, 102.8° E, 22 km in diameter). Image M101476840LE, 1.5 m/pixel, incidence angle of 86°. Figure 1. from PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON IMPACT MELT PROPERTIES FROM LROC NAC IMAGES (2582).

Mest S. C. Berman D. C. Petro N. E. Geologic Mapping of Impact Crater Floor Deposits Near the Lunar South Pole [#2363] Geologic mapping of impact crater floor deposits in the lunar South Pole quadrangle (LQ-30) is revealing (1) smooth, dark deposits interpreted to be mare, and (2) brighter, densely cratered deposits consisting of impact melt and/or mantled mare.

Hawke B. R. Giguere T. A. Bray V. Lawrence S. Tornabene L. Denevi B. W. Garry W. B. Gaddis L. R. Kestay L. Robinson M. LROC Science Team - Byrgius A Crater Impact MeltsAn LROC Perspective [#1611] LROC NAC images were used to investigate the origin, distribution, and modes of occurrence of impact melt at the lunar crater Byrgius A.

Denevi B. W. Robinson M. S. Lawrence S. J. Keszthelyi L. P. Hawke B. R. Garry W. B. Bray V. Tornabene L. L. LROC Team - Physical Constraints on Impact Melt Properties from LROC NAC Images [#2582] A range of well-preserved impact melt flows observed on the outside of crater rims are studied in order to elucidate the physical properties of lunar impact melts.

Plescia J. B. Bussey D. B. J. Robinson M. S. Paige D. A. King Crater – Surface Properties Derived from Diviner, Mini-RF, and LROC Data [#2160] King Crater displays anomalous thermal and radar properties. High resolution LROC images show these are associated with boulders and bedrock outcrops. This example illustrates how LRO data can be used to understand geologic details of a site.

Trang D. Gillis-Davis J. J. Williams K. Bussey D. B. J. Spudis P. D. Carter L. M. Neish C. D. Thompson B. Patterson W. Using Mini-RF to Investigate the Anomalous UVVIS Spectrum in the Apollo and Plato Region [#2652] Mini-RF radar data are used to examine the chemical and physical properties of both Apollo and Plato regions.

Campbell B. A. Carter L. M. Campbell D. B. Nolan M. Chandler J. Ghent R. R. Hawke B. R. Anderson R. F. Wells K. Earth-Based S-Band Radar Mapping of the Moon: New Views of Impact Melt Distribution and Mare Physical Properties [#1772] We present results at the halfway point of a campaign to map much of the Moon’s near side using the 12.6-cm radar transmitter at Arecibo Observatory and receivers at the Green Bank Telescope.

Thomson B. J. Spudis P. D. Bussey D. B. J. Carter L. Kirk R. L. Neish C. Patterson G. Raney R. K. Winters H. Mini-RF Team - Roughness and Radar Polarimetry of Lunar Polar Craters: Testing for Ice Deposits [#2176] Results from the Mini-SAR radar instrument on Chandrayaan-1 indicate certain north polar craters on the Moon have polarization signatures consistent with ice. Roughness effects alone appear insufficient to explain the observations.

Patterson G. W. Bussey D. B. J. Spudis P. D. Neish C. D. Thomson B. J. Carter L. M. Raney K. Williams K. Mini-RF Science Team - The Geomorphology of the Lunar Surface as Seen by the Mini-RF Instrument on LRO [#2316] Here we describe some of the unique capabilities of the Mini-RF radar instrument on LRO with regard to analyzing the geomorphology of the lunar surface.

Lawrence S. J. Mechtley M. Spudis P. Bussey B. Robinson M. S. Coordinated Mini-RF and LROC Observations of the Lunar Surface [#2689] We report on coordinated Mini-RF radar and LROC Narrow Angle Camera observations of the lunar surface.

From WHAT ARE LUNAR BASINS (1712) - Fig. 1. LOLA nearside elevations with respect to a geoid of equatorial radius 1737.4 km [12]. Lambert Equal-Area Projection centered on 60°E longitude.

Fig. 3. (LPSC-XLI-1712) Lambert Equal-Area Projection of geopotential topography of the entire Moon, centered on the antipode of a suggested large basin [9] at 22°E, 8.5°N covering 5/8 of the surface. The South Pole-Aitken Basin is superimposed on the lower half of this elevated region.

Mazarico E. Watters W. A. Barnouin O. S. Neumann G. A. Zuber M. T. Smith D. E. LOLA Science Team - Depth-Diameter Ratios of Small Craters from LOLA Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter Data [#2443] We characterize small craters using the unique cross-track topographic information of the LOLA data. We estimate the best-fit shape and the depth-to-diameter ratio, which inform us on formation processes and (shallower) secondary crater population.

Wells K. S. Bell J. F. III - Characterization of Ejecta Facies of a Small Lunar Crater in Balmer Basin Using LROC Data [#1932] Using a 0.93 m/pix Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image, we investigate the distribution of impact ejecta of a small (D ~ 1 km) unnamed lunar primary crater located in Balmer Basin (–18.6°, 69.1°).

Sori M. M. Zuber M. T. - Preliminary Measurement of Depth-to-Diameter Ratios of Lunar Craters in the Transition Regime Between Complex Craters and Multiringed Basins [#2202] Impact craters on the Moon follow a size-morphology sequence. This study looks at those impact structures in the transition regime between complex craters and multiringed basins. The ratios of those structures’ depth to diameter are measured.

Rosenburg M. A. Aharonson O. Smith D. E. Zuber M. T. Neumann G. A. Torrence M. H. Mazarico E. - Lunar Surface Roughness and Slope Statistics from LOLA [#2502] The RMS slope and Hurst exponent over horizontal scales of ~56 meters to ~2.7 kilometers are calculated from LOLA altimetry measurements and used to quantitatively characterize the roughness properties of the lunar surface.

Barnouin O. S. Smith D. Zuber M. Robinson M. Neumann G. Mazarico E. Denevi B. Duxbury T. Turtle E. LOLA Team - LROC Team - The Topographic Shape and Surface Roughness of a few Lunar Craters [#1479] Topographic data measured from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimetry (LOLA) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) are used to assess the relationship between observed surface features and their topographic expressions within a few lunar craters.

Hiesinger H. van der Bogert C. H. Pasckert J. H. Robinson M. S. Klemm K. Reiss D. LROC Team - New Crater Size-Frequency Distribution Measurements for Copernicus Crater Based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Images [#2304] We have performed new crater size-frequency distribution measurements for melt pools, the floor, and the ejecta blanket of Copernicus crater.

Marchi S. Bottke W. F. New Insights on the Cratering History of Lunar Farside [#1314] In order to achieve a better understanding of the early evolution of the Moon, we performed new crater counts on the oldest terrains on the lunar farside. Derived crater counts are here presented and analysed.

Morita S. Asada N. Demura H. Hirata N. Terazono J. Ogawa Y. Honda C. Kitazato K. Approach to Crater Chronology with Fourier Transform of Digital Terrain Model [#1990] We validated the effect of crater position, diameter and number using the transformed images and their average values. As a result, it showed fourier transform of DTM may be able to be used for geological age estimation instead of crater counting.

Neumann G. A. Mazarico E. M. Lemoine F. G. Smith D. E. Zuber M. T. What are Lunar Basins? [#1712] Lunar basins have been characterized as circular craters > 300 km with no central peak defined by tectonic and volcanic features. LRO/LOLA observations allow re-examination and perhaps removal of some uncertain pre-Nectarian basins, and addition of others.

Ishihara Y. Morota T. Iwata T. Matsumoto K. Goossens S. Sasaki S. Lunar Large Impact Basin Structures and Implications for Thermal History [#1559] We reconstruct excavate cavity geometry of large impact basins on the Moon (including farside basins) using the Kaguya crustal thickness model. We discuss the impact structures and thermal history.

Ambrose W. A. Origin, Distribution and Chronostratigraphy of Asymmetric Secondary Craters and Ejecta Complexes in the Crisium Basin [#1061] Asymmetric secondary craters in the Crisium Basin, differentiated from morphologically similar primary craters, constrain estimated ages of landforms and are instrumental in refining stratigraphic relationships in the basin.

Gan F. P. Yu Y. M. Yan B. K. Primary Study of the Relationship Between the Lunar Surface Topography and Geological Informations [#1303] The distributions of elements and minerals of the lunar surface are retrieved using Clementine data, and DEM model is retrieved using LIDAR data of Chang’E-1 satellite. Finally, the relationship between the compositions and topography of the lunar surface is analyzed.

7:00 p.m. Town Center Exhibit Area

Wood C. A. Reese D. D. Ruberg L. Harrison A. Lightfritz C. Avatrian, LLC MoonWorld: Implementation of Virtual Lunar Exploration [#1439] MoonWorld is an immersive virtual learning experience using Second Life. MoonWorld is realistically based on actual lunar landscapes, NASA spacesuits, base, rover and life support concepts, and mission objectives consistent with field exploration.

Reese D. D. Wood C. A. Learning Lunar Science Through the Selene Videogame [#2260] Selene is a videogame to promote and assess learning of lunar science concepts. As players build and modify a Moon, Selene measures learning as it occurs. Selene is a model for 21st century learning and embedded assessment.

Shaner A. J. Shupla C. Shipp S. Eriksson A. MyMoon: Crossroads of Social Media and Lunar Science Exploration [#2668] In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. MyMoon utilizes social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Flickr to engage — and involve — the 18–35-year-old demographic in lunar science exploration.

Allen J. Luckey M. McInturff B. Huynh P. Tobola K. Loftin L. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries [#1707] NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

Joy K. H. Lintott C. J. Smith A. M. Gay P. Roberts D. Fortson L. Moon Zoo Team - Moon Zoo: Utilizing LROC Lunar Images for Lunar Science and Education [#1620] Moon Zoo will be a citizen science project that will ask users to identify, classify, and measure the shape of features on the lunar surface to address key questions in lunar science.

Bleacher L. V. Weir H. Hsu B. C. Roark J. Keller J. Utilizing Data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter to Produce Products for Formal and Informal Education [#1798] LOLA data is being incorporated into lessons on lunar geology and topography, used to produce tactile models for use in comparative planetology sets, and used with Gridview software that lets users examine and measure topographic features.

LPSC-XLI (2010)-The Moon, Wed., March 3

8:30 a.m. Waterway Ballroom 6
Chairs: Joshua Bandfield
Roy Christoffersen

8:30 a.m. Noble S. K. * Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Lunar Regolith [#1505] Understanding the properties of the uppermost surface of the lunar regolith is critical as it is the surface that is probed by remotely-sensed data. Our initial results suggest this surface may be enriched in ultra-fine grains.

10:45 a.m. Christoffersen R. * Keller L. P. Dukes C. Rahman Z. Baragiola R. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy [#1532] The effect of space radiation processing on lunar ilmenite has been investigated using combined XPS in situ irradiation and surface analysis and FE-STEM imaging and analysis.

X-ray ultramicrographs of opaque glassy particles with ellipsoid, teardrop and dumb-bell morphologies.

11:00 a.m. Kiely C. * Kiely C. J. An X-Ray Ultramicroscopy Study of Apollo 11 Lunar Regolith [#1118] Sub-micron resolution images of the internal structure (using X-ray ultramicroscopy) and external morphology (using SEM) of lunar regolith particles will be presented side-by-side. Rotational movies of individual particles will also be shown.

11:15 a.m. Chen S. B. * Meng Z. G. Lunar Regolith Depth Measurement by Passive Microwave Radiometer Onboard Chang’e Orbiter [#1632] The lunar regolith depths are retrieved by passive microwave radiometer onboard Chang’e Orbitor, China.

11:30 a.m. Wang Z. * Li Y. Jiang J. Li J. A Estimation of The Lunar Surface Temperature, Dielectric Constant, Regolith Thickness and Helium-3 Content Retrieved from Brightness Temperature by CE-1 Microwave Sounder [#1124] CEMLS is the first passive microwave radiometer on lunar orbit. The method of retrieving lunar surface geophysical parameters are discussed, and the retrievals of surface temperature, dielectric
constant, regolith thickness and He3 content are given.

Typical impact melt pool and proximal ejecta on the SE rim of Jackson crater in LROC NAC M103216633L. A crater at the boundary between this melt pool and the ejecta blanket is ~20% larger on the ejecta blanket than on the melt pool. This suggests a difference in the target properties of these two units. Figure 1 from 2165, Below)

1:30 p.m. Waterway Ballroom 5

4:15 p.m. van der Bogert C. H. * Hiesinger H. McEwen A. S. Dundas C. Bray V. Robinson M. S. Plescia J. B. Reiss D. Klemm K. LROC Team - Discrepancies Between Crater Size-Frequency Distributions on Ejecta and Impact Melt Pools at Lunar Craters: An Effect of Differing Target Properties? [#2165] We measured CSFDs for the lunar crater Jackson. The impact melt pools and ejecta have model ages of 85 Ma and 150 Ma, respectively. We show the discrepancy may be explained by differences in target properties, rather than an actual age difference.

Swirled melt pool on the floor of Giordano Bruno. Arrow marks the slump direction of material from the crater wall, a possible trigger for circulation in the melt pool. North is right.

4:30 p.m. Bray V. J. * Tornabene L. L. Caudill C. Rizk B. McEwen A. S. Hawke B. R. Giguere T. A. Garry W. B. Kestay L. van der Bogert C. H. Robinson M. LROC Team Impact Melt Movement in Lunar Craters [#2371] We are conducting mapping and analysis of small-scale flows, ponds and veneers in lunar craters to help us piece together the distribution, timing of emplacement, and cooling histories of different types of melt deposits.

Differences between familiar near side lunar seas Serenitatis and Tranquillitatis are brought to the surface in a stark demonstration of a wide variation in morphology over time. Fig.2 from SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF THE HIGH TITANIUM BASALTS AT MARE TRANQUILLITATIS FROM MOON MINERALOGY MAPPER M3 (Chandrayaan M3) (#2494) 1000 nm integrated band depth image for Mare Traquillitatis and nearby areas.

1:30 p.m. Waterway Ballroom 6
Chairs: Peter Isaacson
Noah Petro

1:30 p.m. Greenhagen B. T. * Lucey P. G. Glotch T. D. Bandfield J. L. Allen C. C. Bowles N. E. Thomas I. R. Wyatt M. B. Donaldson Hanna K. L. Paige D. A. Global Distribution of Lunar Silicates from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [#2382] The Diviner lunar radiometer has made the first direct global measurement of silicate mineralogy of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping. We have found exposures of unusual lithologies and a lack of olivine-rich mantle materials.

1:45 p.m. Glotch T. D. * Lucey P. G. Bandfield J. L. Greenhagen B. T. Thomas I. R. Elphic R. C. Bowles N. E. Wyatt M. B. Allen C. C. Donaldson Hanna K. L. Paige D. A. Identification of Highly Silicic Features on the Moon [#1780] Diviner has detected several features on the Moon with highly silicic compositions. These geologic settings of these features suggest formation of highly evolved lithologies from both extrusive volcanic and intrusive processes.

2:00 p.m. Lucey P. G. * Paige D. A. Greenhagen B. T. Bandfield J. L. Glotch T. D. Comparison of Diviner Christiansen Feature Position and Visible Albedo: Composition and Space Weathering Implications [#1600] Diviner finds that the Christiansen Feature is correlated with visible albedo. This indicates that terrains of similar albedos share similar mafic mineral contents; major variations in Mg are not indicated.

2:15 p.m. Donaldson Hanna K. L. * Wyatt M. B. Paige D. A. Greenhagen B. T. Head J. W. Pieters C. M. Lunar Mare Basalts: Insights Using Diviner Thermal Infrared Data [#2396] Thermal infrared data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the LRO is used to make regional maps of derived compositions and thermophysical properties. In this preliminary study, measurements of the lunar maria are analyzed to see what insight they provide.

2:30 p.m. Isaacson P. J. * Pieters C. M. Clark R. N. Head J. W. Klima R. L. Petro N. E. Staid M. I. Sunshine J. M. Taylor L. A. Thaisen K. G. Tompkins S. Remote Compositional Analyses of Lunar Olivine-rich Lithologies Using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data [#1809] We have applied techniques developed for laboratory spectra of lunar olivines to spectra collected by M3. Our work suggests that the olivines analyzed to date are more Fe-rich than those in primitive Mgsuite rocks from the Apollo collection.

2:45 p.m. Dhingra D. * Pieters C. M. Isaacson P. Staid M. Mustard J. Klima R. Taylor L. A. Kramer G. Nettles J. M3 Team Spectroscopic Signature of the High Titanium Basalts at Mare Tranquillitatis from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) [#2494] High-Ti basalts at Mare Tranquillitatis have been studied using M3 data to explore spectral effects of ilmenite utilizing near IR properties. The results from Mare Tranquillitatis are compared with low-Ti basalts at Mare Serenitatis.

3:00 p.m. Yamamoto S. * Nakamura R. Matsunaga T. Ogawa Y. Ishihara Y. Morota T. Hirata N. Ohtake M. Hiroi T. Yokota Y. Haruyama J. Global Distribution of Olivine Exposures on the Moon Revealed by SELENE Spectral Profiler [#1646] Here, we report the global distribution of olivine exposures, possibly originating from the lunar mantle as discovered by Spectral Profiler onboard the Japanese lunar explorer SELENE (Kaguya).

3:15 p.m. Bugiolacchi R. * Mall U. Bhatt M. McKenna-Lawlor S. A Fresh Look at the Copernicus Crater Central Peak Region Through High-Resolution NIR Data from the SIR-2 Instrument on Chandrayaan-1 [#1609] We looked at the NIR reflectance spectral characteristics of surface materials in the central peaks region of the Copernicus crater using high spectral and spatial resolution data from the SIR-2 instrument on board of the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission.

Figure 1. 2.85 μm images of M3 observations M3G20090209T054030 and M3G20090209T072710

3:30 p.m. Mustard J. F. * Pieters C. M. Isaacson P. J. Head J. W. Klima R. L. Petro N. E. Staid M. Sunshine J. M. Runyon C. Taylor L. A. Compositional Characteristics of the Aristarchus Crater from (M3) Data [#2000] Aristarchus Crater, astride a mare-highland contact, exposes diverse mineralogy in a region of extensive rilles and dark mantle deposits. Here we show the first results of compositional diversity for Aristarchus Crater as seen from M3.

3:45 p.m. Klima R. L. * Pieters C. M. Isaacson P. J. Head J. W. Staid M. Taylor L. A. Petro N. E. Sunshine J. M. Global Distribution and Composition of Low-Ca Pyroxenes on the Moon as Viewed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper [#1485] High spectral and spatial resolution Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data is enabling quantitative characterization of pyroxene composition on the lunar surface. We present results of a global survey of low-Ca pyroxenes, focusing on their Mg-Fe ratios.

4:00 p.m. Riner M. A. * Lucey P. G. Neumann G. A. Mazarico E. Mapping Low-Calcium Pyroxene Using LOLA [#2292] LOLA is not commonly thought to be a mineralogic sensor, but its data can be used to map the relative abundance of magnesian low-calcium pyroxene through detection of changes in spectral reflectance with temperature.

4:15 p.m. Nettles J. W. * Besse S. Boardman J. Combe J-Ph. Clark R. Dhingra D. Isaacson P. Klima R. Kramer G. Petro N. E. Pieters C. M. Staid M. Taylor L. A. Progress Toward A New Lunar Optical Maturity Measure Based on Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data [#2217] Efforts are ongoing to leverage the high spectral resolution and coverage of M3 data to produce a new optical maturity index that better estimates the effects of space weathering on lunar spectra.

4:30 p.m. Hendrix A. R. * Vilas F. Retherford K. D. Gladstone G. R. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Moon: Clues About Composition and Weathering [#2451] We present results from a study combining several UV lunar data sets, including IUE, Galileo and LRO/LAMP, to investigate compositional variations and weathering effects across the surface of the Moon.